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Clinical manifestations vary depending on the severity of the illness. Fever and chills are the most common manifestations. Still, they may be masked if the patient is immunocompromised or at extremes of an age where atypical presentations of sepsis occur (altered mental status, hypotension, lethargy, fatigue). Exit site examination to look for signs of inflammation of tunneled catheters with inspection and palpation of the subcutaneous track is essential. Patients may report pain, swelling, or discharge from the exit site and redness surrounding or along the subcutaneous track when exit site or tunnel infections are present. For long-term catheters, difficulty drawing blood or poor flow are considered risk factors and manifestations of CLABSI.
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Cell phones and cell phone towers (base stations) use RF radiation to transmit and receive signals. Some concerns have been raised that these signals might increase the risk of cancer, and research in this area continues. For more information, see Cellular Phones and Cell Phone Towers.
Fuel filling stations workers and automobile workshops mechanics are consistently exposed to gasoline hydrocarbons during their occupation, this may cause DNA damage. Objective of this study was to evaluate the level of DNA damage in subjects occupationally exposed to these hydrocarbons.
The significant release of vapours from gasoline resulted in direct human exposure to these vapours at various contact points and most importantly in the large number of retail service stations and adjoining settled areas . The vapour form of gasoline, when present in the atmosphere can dispensed at any time, especially at fuel filling service stations, so the people who are working in fueling and refueling of vehicles are more exposed and are at higher risk to its adverse health effects .
Considering the hazardous effects of gasoline hydrocarbons and lack of awareness among our study group, the aim of present study was to assess the level of DNA damage in retail service stations attendants and automobile workshops mechanics and of corresponding unexposed control subjects.
DNA damage assessed using the comet assay. Mean comet score and comet classes in control and exposed groups. The cells were assessed visually and received class 0 (undamaged) to 4 (maximally damaged), according to the size and shape of the tail. Score were obtained using the mean score of three independent, blind evaluators
According to petroleum industry the highest occupational exposure to gasoline vapours typically occurs amongst marine loading operators, truck drivers, service station attendants and bulk terminal operators . Retail service stations attendants are workers who experience chronic exposure to petroleum products mainly through inhalation due to their occupational exposure . As these workers are exposed to gases such as CO2, CO, NO2, Hydrocarbons, Nitro aromatics, Benzopyrene, Benzene, 1, 3 Butadiene etc, all these gases are chemical mutagens . Similarly in engine repair workshops engine exhaust and used engine oils are also major sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) .
The Current research work showed a significant DNA damage in the exposed subjects as compared to control group. This study correlates with the study done in Thailand, which showed greater DNA damage in fifty workers of gasoline stations than that in control group . Santos-Mello et al.  have demonstrated hematopoietic malignancy and chromosomal deletions in lymphocytes of workers exposed to petrol. In a study from North India, genotoxicity in retail service stations attendants showed significantly higher level of DNA damage in exposed subjects as compared to control subjects . Another study from India showed higher level of genotoxicity in filling station attendants exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons as compared to control group .
Smoking is one of the first exposure parameters to which researchers give their attention, as this is an agent that has been supposed to produce harmful effects . Tobacco consumption affected the results for DNA damage used in this study, a significant increase in TCS values was observed in smokers when compared with non-smokers in both control and exposed groups (Table 4). Similarly, from Italy a research on 200 individuals showed that the extent of DNA migration increased up to 10 % in lymphocytes of smokers, but they detected no effect or no relationship to the amount of cigarettes being smoked per day . Many other occupational studies from France , Poland  and Turkey [35, 36] have also reported damaging effects of smoking. A study from China revealed that in a cigarette factory both employees and smokers had more DNA damage as compared to control non-smokers that were not occupationally exposed to any kind of tobacco dust . 350c69d7ab